A new species Melitaea jitka spec. nov. from a montane steppe locality of SW Iran is described. This taxon stands morphologically between two related species: Melitaea persea Kollar, 1850 and Melitaea casta Kollar, 1848. The new species is very variable. It differs from both mentioned related species by a specific morphological feature of the pattern, a characteristic clouded surface of the underside of the hindwings and by a profound sexual dimorphism. Significant differences of male copulatory organs between M. jitka and closely related species are also noticeable. At the type locality, the species occurs together with its closest relative M. persea, and also with Melitaea gina Higgins, 1941, and Melitaea trivia Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775.